After a long period of evolution, the cutting organs of organisms have formed an optimized geometric shape with excellent mechanical properties, which can destroy the structure of objects quickly, low resistance and low consumption, and realize high efficiency cutting. The structural characteristics, material, cutting mechanism and motion mode are studied, which is used for the bionic optimal design of cutting parts, and the systematic design theory and technical method of bionic cutting parts are formed. It can provide useful attempt and exploration for improving the performance of cutting parts.
Biological teeth: teeth are a structure that exists in many animals and are organs for animals to chew food, which are mainly divided into three categories: incisors for cutting off food, canines for piercing and tearing food, and molars for grind food. Animal teeth are hard in texture and have a long service life. They are a natural self-defense weapon for animals throughout their lives. Carnivorous animals especially rely on their teeth to hunt or fight and defend against enemies. Animal teeth are the natural bionics blueprint of cutting parts. For example, the teeth of dog badgers, beavers, bull sharks, bamboo rats and other creatures have been used in the bionic optimization design of cutting parts.
Insect mouthparts: the mouthparts of insect are composed of three pairs of appendages behind the head and a part of the head structure. It mainly has the functions of feeding, feeling and so on. The mouthparts of insects include an upper lip, a pair of jaws, a tongue and a lower lip. Because the feeding habits of insects are very extensive, there are many changes in mouthparts, generally including five types: chewing mouthparts, chewing suction mouthparts, prick suction mouthparts, lapping suction mouthparts and siphon mouthparts. Among them, the chewing mouthpiece of insects can effectively cut off food, and its structure and occlusal movement provide a new way and direction for the bionic optimization design of cutting parts.
Animals have teeth with different structures that can pierce, cut and grind food. The unique structure of animal teeth makes it easy to pierce and tear food, fully grind and break food, and ensure a long service life. The superiority of animal teeth comes from its exquisite structure, reasonable arrangement, occlusal method, and suitable material composition and composition method. Studying its structural characteristics, material composition, cutting mechanism and movement mode can provide useful inspiration and reference for the optimal design of cutting parts. In addition, the insect’s chewing mouthparts have evolved over a long period of time and have a geometric structure with better mechanical properties. Combined with its occlusal movement, it can cut plants with lower cutting resistance and higher efficiency. This is also the geometry of the cutting part. The optimization of parameters and mechanical properties provides the basis for bionic research.
The bionic research and application of animal teeth and insect mouthparts mainly include the following four aspects:
High efficiency bionic cutting tool: bionic design of cutting parts such as gantry shearing machine blade, metal cutting band saw, high strength concrete cutting disc saw and so on;
Cutting parts of agricultural machinery: bionic design of cutting parts of corn harvester, stubble killing knife, rotary ploughing knife, weeding shovel, etc;
Excavating parts of construction machinery: bionic design of excavator bucket teeth, shield tunneling components and other components;
Penetration components in military industry: bionic design of penetration structures such as penetration projectiles, armor piercing projectiles, etc.
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