Why is it itchy? A second skin, wool and other fabrics

Sunny

<p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Do you remember that wool pullover from your grandma? Yeah, the heavy one with much more than 2 colors or&nbsp; a very tasteful motive on. It is that one that you only wear once a year when your grandma is there. The itchy one. When you think about this pullover your skin turns red.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Several years ago I had such a pullover. It was made of pure wool of sheep. I could never wear it. Way too itchy. Now, after purchasing several other wool products, I wanted to know why some kinds of wools are itchy and others are very&nbsp;soft and cosy.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">I think that topic fits very well to our actual theme session about surfaces. In fact, there are only few parameters which define the feeling of a specific material on our skins. Of course, there are differences in experiencing these different kinds of materials and surfaces. For sure a lot of&nbsp;people will never have problems with wool.</p><h3 style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin: 10px 0px; font-family: Merriweather, serif; font-weight: 400; line-height: 40px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); text-rendering: optimizelegibility; font-size: 24.5px; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">A second skin</h3><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Why would you prefer wool in general as a superior material for your wearables? I would answer this by mentioning the attributes that can be delivered by wool in comparison to synthetic fibers.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">First to mention is the ability to regulate moisture, including sweat. Maybe this sounds a little bit trivial, but this property makes the difference between a stinky and a&nbsp;neutral smelling shirt.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">As you can see in&nbsp;the picture above, synthetic fibers are smooth, as natural keratin&nbsp;wool has a lot of „scales“ which make the surface rough and overall surface is much bigger than the surface of the synthetic fabrics for example&nbsp;polyester. This increased&nbsp;surface itself lets the water much easier evaporate, only sweat which can be metabolized by bacteria lets a shirt smell bad. So it is not the sweat itself which smells. On polyester, the sweat stays for much longer, so the bacteria have much more time to operate. Furthermore, the rough surface makes it harder for bacteria to attach on.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Other materials, which are also hygroscopic, like cotton or linen only have the possibility to store water inside the fabric/fibers. The stored sweat is not available for bacteria to metabolize, but of course it does not prevent bad smell such good as wool can do it, because of the limited storage available. The other effect mentioned above is&nbsp;still existing but less significant. Of course, it is possibly also depending on the fabric itself, that moisture can be regulated by ventilation and convection.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">The second big advantage of wool as a second skin is the active heat management, which is directly connected to the evaporation rate, especially when we talk about cooling. So, it is no surprise that the fast water evaporation leads to a lower temperature. When we talk about warming, then the hygroscopic effect is interesting again. It keeps the skin dry and the curled structure of wool fabrics generates&nbsp;air pockets, where the air can stay. The curled structure has another side effect. It minimizes the contact area of the fabric to the skin, so the heat conduction is also reduced. These effects are also helping during the cooling process. Specific kinds of wool also have the ability of warming, when they are moist! Maybe the description of the absorption process follows in a later article.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">&nbsp;</p><h3 style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin: 10px 0px; font-family: Merriweather, serif; font-weight: 400; line-height: 40px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); text-rendering: optimizelegibility; font-size: 24.5px; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Not one of a kind: wool</h3><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Now&nbsp;I want to give you an overview about the different kinds of wool.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Cotton is the only herbal kind of wool in this context. The fibers are harvested from the seed hairs of<em style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; max-width: 100%;">&nbsp;Gossypium.</em>&nbsp;For a low budget this fibers are the perfect option, because in general cotton is cheap and easy to wear and clean. It is a more passive material for clothes, because it is not very good for warming or cooling. Of course, there a very big differences in quality and fiber length, depending on variety and production location. The best cotton is the West Indian Sea Island Cotton and has fiber length up to 55 mm. Also, it is possible to give cotton different kinds of refinements. My personal favourite is the mercerisation, where the yarn is pulled through a&nbsp;sodium hydroxide solution. The yarn macerates and the cross-section changes from reniform to round, while the fiber length gets reduced by 25%. Also, the mechanical strength and dimensional stability is increased, which means the fabric is more robust and keeps its shape also during a lot of&nbsp;cleanses.&nbsp;The characteristics&nbsp;maybe&nbsp;change a lot, but it is very cosy especially as underwear! Furthermore, the cotton gets a shiny like silk and is easier to dye.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">&nbsp;</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">The classic wool is gained by shearing of healthy and living sheep. You should look for the Woolmark seal, to be sure that this criterium was&nbsp;fulfilled! It is a very soft and smooth material. But here we are, depending on some parameters, the wool can be also very itchy. Because of the worldwide demand in many kinds of wearables, wool is still considered a low-priced nature product. Different to cotton, wool is a very active material. It can help to regulate the temperature in hot and cold days.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">&nbsp;</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Merino wool is another kind a sheep wool usually from Australia. Because of the longer growing time of the fur, the fibers are thinner and more elastic. The lesser fiber thickness leads to much less problems for many people (more information below). Many fabrics are traded as „next to skin“ and I think this definition is more than correct. Another big advantage is the smell neutrality. You can wear your pullover, shirts, etc. for a long time without washing. Usually you only need to ventilate your merino product for a while and it is fresh again. The general cleaning mania is very questionable and profit oriented. A good wool does not be washed once a week. 3-4 times a year is much more gentle to the material. This counts for all animal wool fabrics!</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">&nbsp;</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Alpaca camel wool is one of the most expensive kinds of wool because the very slow growing fur. The camel get sheared only once in 2 years! But you get very light and flexible fibers with an isolating effect. It is perfect for winter wear. In the next part I show you examples of the fiber characteristics and how wool is separated in different quality levels.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">&nbsp;</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Angora rabbit wool is collected by shearing, combing or plucking. Especially the plucking on the living animal is very brutal. That is why the demand of that kind of wool is diminishing in the last years. Of course, the fabric is very warming and fluffy, but also very fuzzy.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">&nbsp;</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Mohair wool is a product of the angora goat. It is the lightest of all kind of wool and very comfy to wear. The refinement process is very complicated and the results are still fuzzy. But the lightness and the high flexibility makes this in my opinion to the best wearable fabric in winter. For warm days I miss the active characteristics of merino wool.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">&nbsp;</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Cashmere is maybe the one with the most well known name, when it comes to name high quality wool. The fibers are collected from the cashmere goat by combining. It has a slight silky touch and is most used together with other fabrics. It is very light and thin. It also has high warming capabilities.</p><p style="text-align: center;"><img src="https://goodmorninggloucester.files.wordpress.com/2014/12/wool_fibers.jpg" alt="wool"/></p><p><br/></p><h3 style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin: 10px 0px; font-family: Merriweather, serif; font-weight: 400; line-height: 40px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); text-rendering: optimizelegibility; font-size: 24.5px; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">The parameters</h3><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">The most interesting parameters in the&nbsp;context of itch and scratch are the fiber length and fiber strength. The quality of the spin process and specific refinements are the secondary parameters, but still with a big influence on the wear experience.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">The fibre length is meant to be the real length of a fiber before any refinements or the spinning process. It seems that the length is important to create a yarn which is consistent in shape and roughness over the full yarn length. Are the fibers too short, you can get a rough feeling on your skin, but doesn’t have to be itchy.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">My experience over the last years taught&nbsp;me, that the fiber strength (or thickness) is the most important factor. It is pretty easy. If the fiber is too thick, bigger than 25 µm, then the fabric gets itchy. This is directly connected to the flexibility of the fiber, because the itchiness is mostly an irritation of your skin. It is the contact with a fiber which is not elastic enough to bend.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">&nbsp;</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">To give you an overview about the dimensions I use the example of alpaca wool and how it is offered on the market. These fiber thickness values are given in Micron. It is meant to be the same like µm.</p><ul style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; margin-left: 25px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);" class=" list-paddingleft-2"><li><p>Royal: &lt;19 Micron</p></li><li><p>Baby: 22 Micron</p></li><li><p>Superfine: 25.5 Micron</p></li><li><p>Suri: 27 Micron</p></li><li><p>Adult: 27.5 Micron</p></li><li><p>Huarizo: 32 Micron</p></li><li><p>Llama: 34 Micron</p></li><li><p>Coarse: 36 Micron</p></li></ul><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">This overview should help you to find the right fabrics.&nbsp;For your orientation, some people experience the superine grade as already itchy!</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">To summarize both of these characteristics: The fiber length and strength are leading to the ability of bending. If the fiber is too short, it easily gets stiff and creates an itchy feeling. Same counts for an increased fiber strength. In extreme cases this can lead to skin irritation!</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">By the way, the receptors on your skin to feel itchy are different ones then for example the ones for pain! The itch and scratch mechanism is an&nbsp;important reaction of the body to protect the organism of small but maybe harmful particles.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">&nbsp;</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">How many times did you scratched yourself by reading this article? I would bet not more than me during the writing… It is a normal reflex to be much more sensitive for itches during thinking about itches!</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">&nbsp;</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Have a scratchy day!</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Jan</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">&nbsp;</p><h3 style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin: 10px 0px; font-family: Merriweather, serif; font-weight: 400; line-height: 40px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); text-rendering: optimizelegibility; font-size: 24.5px; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">References</h3><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><strong style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; max-width: 100%;">Wool:</strong></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><a href="https://www.britannica.com/topic/wool" style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; color: rgb(255, 255, 255); max-width: 100%; display: inline-block; margin-left: 2px; margin-right: 4px; position: relative; padding: 0px 5px; line-height: 26px; background-color: rgb(176, 109, 7); text-decoration-line: none !important; transition: none 0s ease 0s !important; transform: none !important;">https://www.britannica.com/topic/wool</a></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><em style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; max-width: 100%;">Britannica.</em>&nbsp;Vol. 12, P. 746 f.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><strong style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; max-width: 100%;">Sweat and Smell:</strong></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Lundström, Johan N.; Olsson, Mats J. (2010). „Functional Neuronal Processing of Human Body Odors“.&nbsp;<em style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; max-width: 100%;">Pheromones</em>. Academic Press</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><strong style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; max-width: 100%;">Merino wool:</strong></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><a href="https://www.numei.com/about-merino-wool.html" style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; color: rgb(255, 255, 255); max-width: 100%; display: inline-block; margin-left: 2px; margin-right: 4px; position: relative; padding: 0px 5px; line-height: 26px; background-color: rgb(176, 109, 7); text-decoration-line: none !important; transition: none 0s ease 0s !important; transform: none !important;">https://www.numei.com/about-merino-wool.html</a></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">https://www.bergzeit.de/magazin/merinowolle-materialkunde-die-funktion-der-faser-im-ueberblick/</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><strong style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; max-width: 100%;">Alpaca:</strong></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">http://www.pacomarca.com/alpaca-basic-information.html</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><strong style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; max-width: 100%;">General:</strong></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">http://fiberarts.org/design/articles/mercerized.html</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><a href="https://baumwollboerse.de/informationen/" style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; color: rgb(255, 255, 255); max-width: 100%; display: inline-block; margin-left: 2px; margin-right: 4px; position: relative; padding: 0px 5px; line-height: 26px; background-color: rgb(176, 109, 7); text-decoration-line: none !important; transition: none 0s ease 0s !important; transform: none !important;">https://baumwollboerse.de/informationen/</a></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">wikipedia.org</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">My own experience</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><strong style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; max-width: 100%;">Itch and Scratch:</strong></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3170689/" style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; color: rgb(255, 255, 255); max-width: 100%; display: inline-block; margin-left: 2px; margin-right: 4px; position: relative; padding: 0px 5px; line-height: 26px; background-color: rgb(176, 109, 7); text-decoration-line: none !important; transition: none 0s ease 0s !important; transform: none !important;">https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3170689/</a></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><strong style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; max-width: 100%;">Title:</strong></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">By 4028mdk09 (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons</p><p><br/></p>...

2020-10-03
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Living among the algae – the better battery …?

Sunny

<p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">The topic of energy storage is more up-to-date than ever. Electric mobility solutions are in need of high-capacity batteries to operate over large distances. The demand for renewable energy sources like wind or solar energy is growing – but those resources are not continuously available. Practical solutions to store energy, available during storms or sunshine and use on the next windless day or the night, are not available. Tackling this issue in a ‘biomimetic way’, one could look into nature and try to find natural solutions for energy storage. But at this point I would like to refer to&nbsp;<a href="http://www.blogionik.org/pov-energy-storage-biomimicry-biomimetic-environment/" style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; color: rgb(255, 255, 255); max-width: 100%; display: inline-block; margin-left: 2px; margin-right: 4px; position: relative; padding: 0px 5px; line-height: 26px; background-color: rgb(176, 109, 7); text-decoration-line: none !important; transition: none 0s ease 0s !important; transform: none !important;">Jan’s article</a>&nbsp;from last week. The production and distribution of energy is nature is fundamentally different from human technology! Energy storage solutions in nature are a potato full of carbohydrates. Or a bear getting fat and prepared for hibernation – but not a battery which operates your dishwasher!</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">&nbsp;</p><h3 style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin: 10px 0px; font-family: Merriweather, serif; font-weight: 400; line-height: 40px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); text-rendering: optimizelegibility; font-size: 24.5px; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><strong style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased;">So, what can we do?</strong></h3><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">In 2013, I visited the IBA (the international building exhibition) in Hamburg. Actually, for one main reason: to see the algae house by BIQ. This building is a pioneer housing project in Hamburg-Wilhelmsburg, where engineers and architects (and I am sure some biologist were also involved) designed a house which is completely energy self-sufficient and gets its energy mainly from a façade out of bioreactors with algae. Of course, this is not a battery per se. But it illustrates perfectly, what a modern renewable energy concept can look like, how natural energy cycles work and how they might serve as energy storage solutions via time-delayed effects.</p><h3 style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin: 10px 0px; font-family: Merriweather, serif; font-weight: 400; line-height: 40px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); text-rendering: optimizelegibility; font-size: 24.5px; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><span style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased;text-decoration:underline;">How does the algae house work?</span></h3><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Even though the prominent algae façade is the most obvious feature of the algae house, it is a holistic renewable energy concept which makes it so special. The algae in the bio reactors at the house façade are growing and multiplying and thereby producing biomass. This biomass is transformed into methane (=biogas) in an internal biogas plant ( 70-80% efficiency). This biogas is operating an efficient fuel cell and here it is! The electricity we need for lights, dishwasher and all the other electrical devices we want to use in our algae house. As a by-product, we gain heat (for hot water or heating in the house) and CO<span style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; position: relative; font-size: 13.5px; line-height: 0; vertical-align: baseline; bottom: -0.25em; max-width: 100%;">2</span>. This we give back to the algae, because they need it for photosynthesis. Excessive heat which is not needed for internal heating or hot water is going into the local grid for the neighbourhood or stored in a geothermal energy system underneath the algae house. If you want to see this energy cycle in a nice animation – please click&nbsp;<a href="http://www.biq-wilhelmsburg.de/energiekreislauf/energiekonzept.html" style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; color: rgb(255, 255, 255); max-width: 100%; display: inline-block; margin-left: 2px; margin-right: 4px; position: relative; padding: 0px 5px; line-height: 26px; background-color: rgb(176, 109, 7); text-decoration-line: none !important; transition: none 0s ease 0s !important; transform: none !important;">here</a>&nbsp;to get more information about the BIQ algae house first hand.</p><h3 style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin: 10px 0px; font-family: Merriweather, serif; font-weight: 400; line-height: 40px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); text-rendering: optimizelegibility; font-size: 24.5px; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"></h3><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">&nbsp;</p><h3 style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin: 10px 0px; font-family: Merriweather, serif; font-weight: 400; line-height: 40px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); text-rendering: optimizelegibility; font-size: 24.5px; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><span style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased;text-decoration:underline;">How is the algae house a ‘better battery’?</span></h3><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Now coming back to the topic of energy storage and the question, if the algae house really is a better battery! By definition: a battery is an electrochemical energy storage solution with an interconnection of multiple galvanic cells. Find more info about galvanic cells&nbsp;<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galvanic_cell" style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; color: rgb(255, 255, 255); max-width: 100%; display: inline-block; margin-left: 2px; margin-right: 4px; position: relative; padding: 0px 5px; line-height: 26px; background-color: rgb(176, 109, 7); text-decoration-line: none !important; transition: none 0s ease 0s !important; transform: none !important;">here.</a>&nbsp;Or a short explanation: a device which is converting chemical into electrical energy via coupling two chemical reactions (oxidation and reduction) with an ionic bridge and using the resulting flow of electrodes to generate a current. The basic principle of a battery can be found in the algae house (for example in the operating fuel cell) but I think it is more the overall concept, which resembles a sophisticated – biological – &nbsp;energy storage solution. Even though our algae rely on sunshine to photosynthesize and grow – energy from their biomass can be generated also in the night! The algae are fixating CO<span style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; position: relative; font-size: 13.5px; line-height: 0; vertical-align: baseline; bottom: -0.25em; max-width: 100%;">2</span>&nbsp;which is available later. So, on a sunny and warm day we might have some loss of solar energy because we cannot store more hot water than our tanks can take. But: under optimal conditions, the algae are growing very fast and their increasing biomass is a storage of energy in itself.</p><h3 style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin: 10px 0px; font-family: Merriweather, serif; font-weight: 400; line-height: 40px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); text-rendering: optimizelegibility; font-size: 24.5px; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><span style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased;text-decoration:underline;">Is this Biomimetics?</span></h3><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Without wanting to bore you with definition, I find the question if such a concept is considered ‘biomimetic’ quite interesting. As described above, we are for sure using a biological functional principle to improve a technological application. So: this is Biomimetics. Because we are USING biological material though (the algae) – this is actually belonging into the field of Biotechnology. SO: I would conclude that on a material basis, we are dealing with Biotechnology. But on a conceptual basis, this is definitely a bio-inspired – or even biomimetic –&nbsp; energy system. If you want some further clarification of these terms: find more info in this&nbsp;<a href="http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-3190/12/1/011004/meta" style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; color: rgb(255, 255, 255); max-width: 100%; display: inline-block; margin-left: 2px; margin-right: 4px; position: relative; padding: 0px 5px; line-height: 26px; background-color: rgb(176, 109, 7); text-decoration-line: none !important; transition: none 0s ease 0s !important; transform: none !important;">publication</a>.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Would you like to live among algae to support the concept of an energy self-sufficient house? Please feel free to post your thoughts and comments about the algae house!</p><p>Repost from&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="https://blogionik.org/blog/2017/04/28/algae/#comments" style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; color: rgb(154, 154, 154); text-decoration-line: none !important; transition: none 0s ease 0s !important; transform: none !important;">Keine Kommentare</a></p><p><br/></p>...

2020-10-03
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Mimicking salt filtration membranes in nature, Technical Implementation

Sunny

<p><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">After learning about how the&nbsp;</span><a href="http://www.blogionik.org/filter-salt-mangroves/" style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; color: rgb(255, 255, 255); max-width: 100%; display: inline-block; margin-left: 2px; margin-right: 4px; position: relative; padding: 0px 5px; line-height: 26px; background-color: rgb(176, 109, 7); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; white-space: normal; text-decoration-line: none !important; transition: none 0s ease 0s !important; transform: none !important;">plant kingdom keeps salt out</a><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">&nbsp;and&nbsp;</span><a href="http://www.blogionik.org/salt-regulation/" style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; color: rgb(255, 255, 255); max-width: 100%; display: inline-block; margin-left: 2px; margin-right: 4px; position: relative; padding: 0px 5px; line-height: 26px; background-color: rgb(176, 109, 7); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; white-space: normal; text-decoration-line: none !important; transition: none 0s ease 0s !important; transform: none !important;">how fish deal with high salt concentrations</a><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">, I would like to discuss how it affects us humans. All throughout the history the availability of salt has been important to civilization. As a matter of fact the word salary come from the&nbsp;</span><a href="http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=salary" style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; color: rgb(255, 255, 255); max-width: 100%; display: inline-block; margin-left: 2px; margin-right: 4px; position: relative; padding: 0px 5px; line-height: 26px; background-color: rgb(176, 109, 7); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; white-space: normal; text-decoration-line: none !important; transition: none 0s ease 0s !important; transform: none !important;">Latin word</a><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">&nbsp;for ‘salt’, because the&nbsp;Roman Legions&nbsp;were sometimes paid in salt.</span></p><p><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><br/></span></p><p style="text-align: center;"><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><img src="http://www.blogionik.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/1.png" width="506" height="250" style="width: 506px; height: 250px;"/></span></p><p><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><br/></span></p><p><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"></span></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Salt is all around us, in our food, underground, on the earth’s surface and oceans around us. Its existence is due to the dried up residues of ancient seas. It has many types and methods of production; white salt comes from evaporating ‘solution-mined’ brine inside pressure vessels. &nbsp;The salt we use for our roads comes from ancient salt deposits in the mines. Many places in the world use the sun to produce salt from ocean water. To put this in perspective, ocean water has a salinity of 3.5% that is 35 grams of solids per liter.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Salt though is used in almost everything we eat and in making of plastic, paper, glass, polyester, rubber and fertilizers to household bleach, soaps, detergents and dyes. But we still want to keep it out of lives in some cases. For example salt is bad for your cars, also to our body in large content and most importantly the same water used to make salt cannot be used for drinking.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Nature uses membranes to remove salts and filter water. We have many such processes as well; filters (sieves) where the size of the sediments filtered is determined by the pore size. The other process is reverse osmosis, where water is pushed through a dense non-porous active layer film on a porous support (2). Water purification faces a major challenge of high energy costs incurred by current&nbsp;<a href="https://phys.org/tags/membrane/" style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; color: rgb(255, 255, 255); max-width: 100%; display: inline-block; margin-left: 2px; margin-right: 4px; position: relative; padding: 0px 5px; line-height: 26px; background-color: rgb(176, 109, 7); text-decoration-line: none !important; transition: none 0s ease 0s !important; transform: none !important;">membrane</a>&nbsp;systems to recover water from saline sources. These processes are costly as they require high osmotic pressure to push&nbsp;water through the membranes (2).</p><p><br/></p><p style="text-align: center;"><span style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><img src="http://www.blogionik.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/4.jpg"/></span><br/></p><p><span style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><br/></span></p><p><br/></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Nature uses aquaporins, also known as the water channel membranes, found abundantly in many of the mechanisms they are the functional unit of nature’s&nbsp;<a href="https://phys.org/tags/water+purification/" style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; color: rgb(255, 255, 255); max-width: 100%; display: inline-block; margin-left: 2px; margin-right: 4px; position: relative; padding: 0px 5px; line-height: 26px; background-color: rgb(176, 109, 7); text-decoration-line: none !important; transition: none 0s ease 0s !important; transform: none !important;">water purification</a>&nbsp;systems. These membranes can be found in all the living organisms from mangrove plants to bacteria and human kidneys. Aquaporins work in an ingenious way in selective water transport. These molecules, basically attract the water molecules, due to the hydrophobic nature of the water channels, they shoot out the water molecule at the other end. In spite of water molecules being able to pass through the protein channel in a single file, this is highly effective and fast transportation of up to one billion every second.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">One of the major advantages of such membranes is that they allow large volumes of water molecules to pass through a relatively small area at low pressures. Hence allowing for desalination of water at low pressure. Such membranes are responsible for filtering 90% of the salt in mangrove trees and providing up to 150 liters of filtered water in human kidneys. Apart from filtering salt aquaporin molecules have the ability to restrict the passage of contaminants including bacteria, viruses, minerals, proteins, DNA, dissolved gases, salts, detergents, and even protons without encumbering the passage of water (4).</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">&nbsp;</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Researchers at the National university of Singapore (NUS) have designed such a membrane which they claim is inspired from mangrove trees membranes. They have succeeded in placing these aquaporins proteins onto polymer filtration surfaces, which allow high volumes of water at low pressure and energy.<br style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; max-width: 100%;"/>Assoc. Prof. Tong from NUS explains that “This biomimetic membrane is build to mimic the layers of cells on the roots of mangrove trees. This is done by embedding nano sized aquaporin vesicles onto a sable ultra filtration substrate membrane using an innovative yet simple and easy-to-implement surface imprinting technology”.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">In contrast, due to the presence of two different layers, the biomimetic membrane presents a higher mechanical strength and stability. This makes it ideal for industrial applications where it could resolve large water related issues.</p><p style="text-align: center;"><img src="http://www.blogionik.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/2.jpg"/></p><p><span style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><br/></span></p><p><span style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">In conclusion, natural mechanisms mangrove trees and aquatic life provide inspiration for such biomimetic products. Further development of this could have serious implementations in biological and biomedical fields.</span></span><br/></p><p><span style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><br/></span></p><p><span style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"></span></p><h3 style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin: 10px 0px; font-family: Merriweather, serif; font-weight: 400; line-height: 40px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); text-rendering: optimizelegibility; font-size: 24.5px; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">References:</h3><ol style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; margin-left: 25px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);" class=" list-paddingleft-2"><li><p><em style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased;">The many uses of Salt</em>. (2017).&nbsp;<em style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased;">Maldonsalt.co.uk</em>. Retrieved 2 July 2017, from&nbsp;<a href="http://www.maldonsalt.co.uk/About-Salt-The-many-uses-of-Salt.html" style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; color: rgb(0, 140, 35); text-decoration-line: none !important; transition: none 0s ease 0s !important; transform: none !important;">http://www.maldonsalt.co.uk/About-Salt-The-many-uses-of-Salt.html</a>.</p></li><li><p><em style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased;">Biomimetic Membranes: Taking on Energy Usage in Water Purification</em>. (2017).&nbsp;<em style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased;">Waterworld.com</em>. Retrieved 2 July 2017, from http://www.waterworld.com/articles/wwi/print/volume-27/issue-3/editorial-focus/desalination/biomimetic-membranes-taking.html</p></li><li><p><em style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased;">Highly efficient nature-inspired membrane could potentially lower cost of water purification by 30 per cent</em>. (2017).&nbsp;<em style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased;">Phys.org</em>. Retrieved 2 July 2017, from https://phys.org/news/2015-12-highly-efficient-nature-inspired-membrane-potentially.html</p></li><li><p><em style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased;">Biomimetic Membranes: Nature Inspires Next Generation of Water Filtration Technology</em>. (2017).&nbsp;<em style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased;">Waterworld.com</em>. Retrieved 2 July 2017, from http://www.waterworld.com/articles/iww/print/volume-14/issue-3/features/biomimetic-membranes.html</p></li></ol><p>Repost from&nbsp; &nbsp;<a href="https://blogionik.org/blog/2017/07/03/theme-salt/#comments" style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; color: rgb(154, 154, 154); text-decoration-line: none !important; transition: none 0s ease 0s !important; transform: none !important;">Keine Kommentare</a></p><p><span style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><br/></span><br/></p>...

2020-10-03
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Papyrus and electrostatic water condensation

Sunny

<p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Dear readers, this is the last topic of three articles about electrostatic fields. In the&nbsp;<a href="http://www.blogionik.org/strategies-water-condensation-collection/" style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; color: rgb(255, 255, 255); max-width: 100%; display: inline-block; margin-left: 2px; margin-right: 4px; position: relative; padding: 0px 5px; line-height: 26px; background-color: rgb(176, 109, 7); text-decoration-line: none !important; transition: none 0s ease 0s !important; transform: none !important;">first one</a>&nbsp;I wrote about strategies for&nbsp;water condensation, and the&nbsp;<a href="http://www.blogionik.org/natural-electrostatic-fields/" style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; color: rgb(255, 255, 255); max-width: 100%; display: inline-block; margin-left: 2px; margin-right: 4px; position: relative; padding: 0px 5px; line-height: 26px; background-color: rgb(176, 109, 7); text-decoration-line: none !important; transition: none 0s ease 0s !important; transform: none !important;">second one</a>&nbsp;was about natural electrostatic fields on plants. This article is about my own research where I investigated, if plants can actually condensate atmospheric water vapour on the surface of their leaves by using electrostatic charging.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">&nbsp;</p><h3 style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin: 10px 0px; font-family: Merriweather, serif; font-weight: 400; line-height: 40px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); text-rendering: optimizelegibility; font-size: 24.5px; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Papyrus</h3><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Mainly because of its extraordinary shape I chose&nbsp;<em style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; max-width: 100%;">Cyperus papyrus L</em>. as a role model. It is a tropical freshwater plant growing in swamps largely restricted to areas of eastern and central Africa [Sculthorpe, 1967]. The stems are growing up to 5 m high and are composed of several hundred rays, each of which extends into 3-5 flattened bracteoles [Raynal, 1971]. When touched, the bracteoles seem quite rough, which made me think that this could already be attributed to surface charging caused by friction (like in the case of an electrostatic duster made of plastic that you may know). The mentioned mechanism and the surface structure had to be investigated in order to confirm the hypothesis&nbsp;that papyrus plants can condensate water vapour via electrostatics.</p><p><br/></p><p style="text-align: center;"><img src="http://www.blogionik.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/DSC_0578-201x300.jpg" alt="DSC_0578"/></p><p><br/></p><h3 style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin: 10px 0px; font-family: Merriweather, serif; font-weight: 400; line-height: 40px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); text-rendering: optimizelegibility; font-size: 24.5px; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Hypothesis</h3><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">My hypothesis was that such phenomenon could be used in the plant’s strategy to create a water layer on the surface of the bracteoles to reduce the water pressure gradient with the surrounding air. This would&nbsp;prevent early stomatal closure with reduced photosynthesis rate. Another advantage for the plant could be that it regulates the temperature via the cooling effect of the latent heat during water evaporation at daytime.</p><h3 style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin: 10px 0px; font-family: Merriweather, serif; font-weight: 400; line-height: 40px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); text-rendering: optimizelegibility; font-size: 24.5px; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Investigation</h3><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">The first part of my research was dedicated to analyse the structure of the bracteoles. Fluorescent microscopy illustrates different tissues and materials that are forming bracteoles and rays. Fig. 2&nbsp;represents a cross-section of a ray where a layer of chloroplast (emitting red light) is placed directly under the cuticule (outer layer). Blue emission refers to lignified tissues, in this case the epidermis.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><br/></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); text-align: center;"><img src="http://www.blogionik.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/rayCS2-1024x273.jpg" alt="rayCS2" width="546" height="145" style="width: 546px; height: 145px;"/></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><br/></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Electrostatic charge measurements were conducted by establishing an experimental set-up as shown in Fig. 3. The plant was placed between two metal plates, one serving as a ground and the other one was collecting charges from the plant. Both electrodes (plates) were connected to a PC with a Matlab software to collect the results. From the values of collected surface charge, it is evident that the charges are small, normally of some nanocoulombs (nC). Plants themselves also do not carry a charge significantly different than the surrounding air even though it can vary in polarity.</span></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); text-align: center;"><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><img src="http://www.blogionik.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/setup-300x225.jpg" alt="setup"/></span></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><br/></span></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">In addition to papyrus, ostrich feathers and plastic dusters were included in this research for comparison. It was observed in all three examples that electrostatic charging by rotating or shaking the feathers or duster does not induce much charge (100-200 nC).</span></span></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><br/></span></span></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); text-align: center;"><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><img src="http://www.blogionik.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/duster-1024x343.png" alt="duster" width="514" height="112" style="width: 514px; height: 112px;"/></span></span></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><br/></span></span></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Plant polarization was proven in the vicinity of the Van der Graaf generator with a maximal voltage of 275 kV where&nbsp;</span><em style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; max-width: 100%; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Cyperus papyrus</em><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">&nbsp;experienced a transient charge transfer. The attraction force can be seen in Fig. 5&nbsp;where individual bracteoles orientated towards the sphere.</span></span></span></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"></p><h3 style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin: 10px 0px; font-family: Merriweather, serif; font-weight: 400; line-height: 40px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); text-rendering: optimizelegibility; font-size: 24.5px; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Simulation</h3><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Simulations of plant electrostatics were conducted by using the software ANSYS<span style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; position: relative; font-size: 13.5px; line-height: 0; vertical-align: baseline; top: -0.5em; max-width: 100%;">®</span>. The geometries of Papyrus and a reference plant were adapted to a certain degree in order to understand the influence of the geometry to charge distribution.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); text-align: center;"><img src="http://www.blogionik.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/275kV-1024x242.jpg" alt="275kV" width="1" height="1" style="width: 1px; height: 1px;"/></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Collected charges were small in both cases of applied voltages (100 V and 275 kV). The charge polarity occurred as seen in Fig. 6. Plants are not completely isolative, therefore some charges concentrate on the surface (blue colour). The charge of opposite polarity is induced on the lower side (red colour). Rays of papyrus plant are much thinner and such effect is not so obvious. In case of a conductive material, there would not be any charge collection.</p><h3 style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin: 10px 0px; font-family: Merriweather, serif; font-weight: 400; line-height: 40px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); text-rendering: optimizelegibility; font-size: 24.5px; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Conclusion</h3><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">In this research, electrostatic charging of&nbsp;<em style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; max-width: 100%;">Cyperus papyrus</em>&nbsp;was studied in order to reveal its possible mechanism for water condensation. Analysis of plant physiology shows structural features that enable building-up of electrostatic charge. Charge measurements proved that plants can get statically charged on a nanocoulomb level like other objects applicable for their electrostatics (dusters). Plants carry approximately the same amount of charge as the surrounding air only with the opposite polarity because they are grounded. This is a result of a polarization effect on plants caused by the vicinity of a charged object.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Nevertheless, the principal hypothesis of water condensation due to electrostatics on the papyrus plant is disconfirmed. It is true that charged nuclei in the atmosphere serve as an initial condition for water precipitation but the amount of charge for a much smaller particle size is in coulomb range. Electrostatics on the ground is measured on a nano-scale which cannot provide sufficient charge for water molecules to condense on a much bigger surface. Additionally, no structural features on bracteoles that would facilitate collection of water condensation were found.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><br/></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">To conclude,&nbsp;<em style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; max-width: 100%;">Cyperus papyrus</em>&nbsp;is truly an interesting plant. Although the hypothesis of this particular research project could be disconfirmed, the plant possesses other features worth of biomimetic interest. It could provide us with ideas for efficient use of solar light and temperature regulation based on its structure and thermodynamical laws but further research is definitely needed.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">References:</p><ul style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; margin-left: 25px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);" class=" list-paddingleft-2"><li><p>[1] C. Sculthorpe, 1967, The biology of aquatic vascular plants, St. Martin’s Press, Arnold, London</p></li><li><p>[2] J. Raynal, 1971, Quelques notes morphologiques sur le cyperceae, Mitteilungen aus der botanischen Staatsammlung, München 10, 589-603</p></li><li><p>[3] A. Soklic, 2014, Electrostatic field of Cyperus papyrus in relation to water condensation, Master thesis – Bionik/ Biomimetics in Energy Systems</p></li></ul><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Repost from&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></span><a href="https://blogionik.org/blog/2016/08/11/papyrus-electrostatic-water-condensation/#comments" style="font-family: sans-serif; font-size: 16px; box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; color: rgb(154, 154, 154); text-decoration-line: none !important; transition: none 0s ease 0s !important; transform: none !important;">Keine Kommentare</a></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"></span></span></span><br/></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><br/></span></span></span></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><br/></span></span></span><br/></p><p><br/></p>...

2020-10-03
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Theme session: Electricity

Sunny

<p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Welcome back readers. Hope all of you had a great summer vacation. We start with a new theme ‘Electricity’. We humans are very familiar with the term electricity, because we are surrounded by it. Electricity is powering most of our technology from our cell phones, computers, lights, soldering irons, and so on to basic amenities like cooking and climate control. The more our technology is advancing, the more we get dependent on electricity. We could try to escape, but it’s at work all throughout nature as well, from the lighting in a thunderstorm to neural synapses in our own body.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">&nbsp;</p><h3 style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin: 10px 0px; font-family: Merriweather, serif; font-weight: 400; line-height: 40px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); text-rendering: optimizelegibility; font-size: 24.5px; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><strong style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased;">What is Electricity ? &nbsp;</strong></h3><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Electricity is defined as the&nbsp;flow of electric charge. Its best-known form is the flow of electrons through conductors such as copper wires. It occurs in positive and negative forms and can be found in lightning or produced using a generator.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">However is it that simple? In reality, there is no definitive definition of electricity, but just abstract representations of how electricity interacts with its surroundings. Let’s take a look at electromagnetism, this was considered a separate &nbsp;phenomenon until development of Maxwell’s equations. Now they are recognized as a single phenomenon, among others like lightning, static electricity, electric discharges and many others[1].</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">&nbsp;</p><h3 style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin: 10px 0px; font-family: Merriweather, serif; font-weight: 400; line-height: 40px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); text-rendering: optimizelegibility; font-size: 24.5px; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><strong style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased;">Electricity today and its challenges:</strong></h3><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Two of the biggest problems we face today are storage and transportation of electricity. It is not feasible with the current transportation and storage methods to facilitate electricity everywhere on Earth and available all the time. Due to financial and geographical constrains it is impossible to use the same techniques all around the world. That does not mean all hope is lost? &nbsp;Just two decades ago the lithium-ion battery was commercially released. Since its release it has taken the world of personal electronics to a next level. After initially being used in portable music players and camcorders, the lithium-ion battery has found its way into everyday products like laptops, tablets and mobile phones technologies that have permanently changed how our society works[1].</p><p><br/></p><h3 style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin: 10px 0px; font-family: Merriweather, serif; font-weight: 400; line-height: 40px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); text-rendering: optimizelegibility; font-size: 24.5px; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><strong style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased;">Where can we find Electricity in nature:</strong></h3><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Contrary to popular belief, electricity is not just found in power lines and electronics made by man, but also exists abundantly in nature. Electricity is produced and stored in nature in many forms. One of the most common and well known examples in nature is electric eels, they produce enough electricity to power a dozen 40-watt lightbulbs. Their electricity storage mechanism is one of the most interesting and sort after. The topic of electric eels will be covered in the coming weeks by our colleague Anja.</p><h4 style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin: 10px 0px; font-family: Merriweather, serif; font-weight: 400; line-height: 20px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); text-rendering: optimizelegibility; font-size: 17.5px; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><strong style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased;">Human Body:</strong></h4><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Our bodies rely on electric signals every time we move a muscle, our brain sends an electrical signal to our muscles prompting them to move. In essence, our bodies are a complex network of nerves (modern day equivalent of cables) which control every movement of our body using electric signals.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Human bodies are not the only ones that use electricity, insects and sea creatures use it to survive in nature. They use electricity to detect objects around them (eg: Sharks) and others use electricity to fend off predators or even hunt for food.</p><h4 style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin: 10px 0px; font-family: Merriweather, serif; font-weight: 400; line-height: 20px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); text-rendering: optimizelegibility; font-size: 17.5px; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><strong style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased;">Electroreception in sharks and catfish:</strong></h4><p><br/></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Visibility under water is a scarcity, but how come sharks are one of the best know predators when they cannot see their prey? Aquatic animals like sharks, lampreys, and catfishes use electricity for electroreception. They generate electric fields around them and use it to navigate and detect objects around them. It could be related to having the ability to see in the dark. The electrical pulses generated by aquatic animals due to the activity of their nerves and muscles are picked up by the special pores around the shark’s face, serving as active homing devices[2]. This helps the sharks find its prey even if its buried and the salty water serves as a great conducting medium for these electrical pulses.</p><h4 style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin: 10px 0px; font-family: Merriweather, serif; font-weight: 400; line-height: 20px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); text-rendering: optimizelegibility; font-size: 17.5px; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><strong style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased;">Electric communication in Mormyrid fish:</strong></h4><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Mormyrid fish use electric pulses to communicate with each other. They rely on the wave form of their electric organ discharge (EOD). They use these EODs for exchanging information on species, sex, and social status[3]. On the other hand, they communicate their rapidly changing mood/behavioral states and motivation using the sequences of the electric pulse intervals (SPI) from their EOD[3]. Another important point to mention is that many fish such as sharks, rays and catfishes are not classified as electric fish. As they are electro receptive meaning they can detect electric fields, but cannot produce electricity.</p><p><br/></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Hope this gives an overview on how nature uses electricity and in the coming weeks some of the above mentioned topics will be elaborated in detail.&nbsp;To conclude, nature employs electricity in numerous purposes and the concepts. The methods and techniques used in nature serve as an inspiration for optimizing/solving many of our modern day systems. One of the major differences in my opinion on how nature handles electricity in contrast to us humans is the usability. To elaborate, an electric ray uses thousands of flat disk shaped cells for&nbsp;<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bioelectrogenesis" style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; color: rgb(255, 255, 255); max-width: 100%; display: inline-block; margin-left: 2px; margin-right: 4px; position: relative; padding: 0px 5px; line-height: 26px; background-color: rgb(176, 109, 7); text-decoration-line: none !important; transition: none 0s ease 0s !important; transform: none !important;">Bioelectrogenesis</a>&nbsp;(electricity generation by living organisms). This method of electricity storage could inspire many storage systems for our modern day systems which in contrast are relatively bulky. An existing example of a similar storage system can be seen in Tesla cars. Tesla’s storage systems employ hundreds of small batteries stacked in layers to power their hyper cars. This nature of technology could potential change the way we handle electric storage.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">If you wish to share your thoughts or have questions feel free to contact us&nbsp;</p><h4 style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin: 10px 0px; font-family: Merriweather, serif; font-weight: 400; line-height: 20px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); text-rendering: optimizelegibility; font-size: 17.5px; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><strong style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased;">&nbsp;References:&nbsp;</strong></h4><ol style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; margin-left: 25px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);" class=" list-paddingleft-2"><li><p>Jones, D.A. (1991), „Electrical engineering: the backbone of society“,&nbsp;<em style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased;">Proceedings of the IEE: Science, Measurement and Technology</em>,&nbsp;<strong style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased;">138</strong>&nbsp;(1): 1–10</p></li><li><p>Heiligenberg, Walter.&nbsp;<em style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased;">Principles of electrolocation and jamming avoidance in electric fish : a neuroethological approach</em>. Berlin New York: Springer-Verlag, 1977.</p></li><li><p>Hopkins, Carl D. „Evolution of electric communication channels of mormyrids.“&nbsp;<em style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased;">Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology</em>&nbsp;7.1 (1980): 1-13.</p></li></ol><p><br/></p><p>Repost from&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="https://blogionik.org/blog/2017/09/18/theme-secession-electricity/#comments" style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; color: rgb(154, 154, 154); text-decoration-line: none !important; transition: none 0s ease 0s !important; transform: none !important;">Keine Kommentare</a></p><p><br/></p>...

2020-10-03
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Theme session: “Energy storage”

Sunny

<p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Dear readers, we are starting a new theme session, which will be dedicated to &nbsp;“energy storage”. Our focus will be on presenting different strategies in living organisms that nature developed in order to store energy. Types of energy, their purpose and working mechanisms are topics&nbsp;you can expect to read about in the next weeks, based on some interesting examples.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Firstly, I will resume some very basic physical laws about energy. Energy is the property of an object to perform work or to heat it. It can be transformed from one form to another but cannot be created or destroyed. The international unit is the Joule (J). Common forms are mechanical, potential, elastic, chemical, radiant and thermal energy.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">&nbsp;</p><h2 style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin: 10px 0px; font-family: Merriweather, serif; font-weight: 400; line-height: 40px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); text-rendering: optimizelegibility; font-size: 31.5px; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><strong style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased;">Why is energy needed?</strong></h2><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Energy &nbsp;enables natural processes to run on different levels – from atomic to universal scale.&nbsp;Living organisms require energy principally to stay alive and they get it by taking up food/ nutrients. The whole civilization gets the energy it needs from sources like fossil fuels, nuclear fuel or renewable energy. Earth’s climatic and ecological processes are driven by the radiant energy received from the sun and the geothermal energy from the Earth’s interior.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Life would be easy, if the energy we need would continuously be available. Since this is not the case, some kind of energy storage is required. This means that the energy is captured in different forms for a later use. Some forms provide short-term storage while others can endure for much longer. And exactly these facts are the point of interest for Biomimetics. How nature deals with the challenge of energy storage&nbsp;and what are possible inspirations for&nbsp;technological development.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">&nbsp;</p><h2 style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin: 10px 0px; font-family: Merriweather, serif; font-weight: 400; line-height: 40px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); text-rendering: optimizelegibility; font-size: 31.5px; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><strong style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased;">Energy rich molecules</strong></h2><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">For many animals, finding food continuously is not possible, therefore the only strategy (besides storing the food itself) is to eat whenever the food is available and store is as fat inside the body. Hibernating animals must enlarge their adipose tissue before winter in order to survive without eating. Similarly, green photosynthetic plants growing in hot regions, or those who drop their leaves and become dormant, also need to have stored food to maintain their lifecycle. Without some nutrient reserves inside, a leafless plant would not even be able to produce new leaves and would simply die.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Humans and animals store energy mainly as fat in adipose tissues within the body. Energy from fats (triglycerides) is obtained by breaking the&nbsp;covalent bonds during the degradation process where many ATP molecules are formed (ATP = adenosine triphosphate, a molecule responsible for intracellular energy transfer). A smaller amount is stored as glucose and glycogen in blood, muscles and livers but that is only enough for a few hours of physical activity. Plants, on the other hand, store starch instead. Why this difference? There are two main reasons – mobility and stability. The energy storing molecule should not be too heavy and must be stable for a longer period within the plant/ animal’s body. Because animals are moving, is fat a perfect storage tissue. One unit of fat stores much more energy than one unit of carbohydrate or protein [1]. Plants do not move so weight saving is not a necessity. The heavier starch molecule is more stable than the lighter fat molecule, which enable the plants to store starch over years or decades. Fat would become moldy if exposed to oxygen, so it is useless for plants. Well, not completely useless – seeds contain quite some quantities of oils but they are relatively small compared to the plant.</p><h2 style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin: 10px 0px; font-family: Merriweather, serif; font-weight: 400; line-height: 40px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); text-rendering: optimizelegibility; font-size: 31.5px; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><strong style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased;">Mechanical energy</strong></h2><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">As mentioned before, with the work of muscles fuelled by food, animals can move around. But this is not the only way. Nature developed different systems in order to exploit energy transfer for several purposes – jumping, accelerating, feeding, etc. Maybe the most known example is a hopping kangaroo, which conserves energy by using elastic mechanism in its tendons. When a force is applied to a tendon/ string, it bends and stores energy in the form of elastic strain energy. And when it recoils after the force has been released, this energy is released as well. Therefore, a kangaroo is more efficient by jumping as running, since it consumes less energy that way.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Skeletal systems with tendons can act as power amplifiers, too, by storing energy gradually and releasing it rapidly. The process of amplification begins when a muscle contracts steadily, storing elastic strain energy in the tendon. Once the energy is completely stored, the tendon releases it in a very short time span, which increases the power significantly. Nice examples are flees – being able to leap a distance of some 50 times their body length. Or a click beetle, jumping up high even without legs. Further examples are chameleon’s tongue, frog’s legs…..all using stored elastic energy for acceleration.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">&nbsp;</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">But not to forget plants! I mentioned in the previous section that plants do not move in the sense of changing locations. Plants themselves not, but their seeds do. It is impressive to investigate all kinds of seed spreading techniques that nature developed, but my focus is more on using the stored energy for this purpose. One of them will be presented in the following weeks – the popping see pods. They use their internal pressure in order to contract and generate tension required for the explosion. But more about that soon.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">&nbsp;</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Energy storage is a wide topic.&nbsp;In the upcoming&nbsp;articles we hope to give you an insight into naturals mechanisms which you may not know so far. Therefore, follow us on BlogIONIK!</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"><br/></p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; font-size: 18px; line-height: 2; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">References:</p><ul style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; padding: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; margin-left: 25px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Lato, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);" class=" list-paddingleft-2"><li><p>[1]&nbsp;<a href="https://www.med.upenn.edu/biocbiop/faculty/vanderkooi/chap7-9.pdf" style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; color: rgb(0, 140, 35); text-decoration-line: none !important; transition: none 0s ease 0s !important; transform: none !important;">Making and storing fat and retrieving it to supply energy</a></p></li><li><p>Photos:&nbsp;<a href="https://www.facebook.com/A-K-photography-1420232784860308/" style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; color: rgb(0, 140, 35); text-decoration-line: none !important; transition: none 0s ease 0s !important; transform: none !important;">A K Photography</a></p></li></ul><p><br/></p><p>Repost from&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="https://blogionik.org/blog/2017/04/13/theme-session-energy-storage/#comments" style="box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; color: rgb(154, 154, 154); text-decoration-line: none !important; transition: none 0s ease 0s !important; transform: none !important;">Keine Kommentare</a></p><p><br/></p>...

2020-10-03
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